Still off my trolley? Reflections on technology to refresh the parts other forms of learning cannot reach

After a few days of contemplation I remain convinced about the potential of Augmented Reality to support learning,  particularly when combined with a range of other technologies through mobile phones, and embedded devices, for example.

Our own research has demonstrated that AR has the potential to promote learning and to motivate children to engage with learning activities. There is evidence that specific skills can be improved, that learners are motivated and challenged through  interactive problem solving activities and that AR can offer many opportunities for collaboration. Previous research projects, some of them quite old now, have also shown the potential of AR to enhance the presentation of knowledge across a range of real-world settings and the creation of engaging ways of interacting with simulations: demonstrating the broad potential of this technology across a spectrum of learning activities. See for example, Ambient Wood, Savannah, Environmental Detectives and there are more general lessons to be learned from studies with Ubiquitous. Augmented.Reality User Interfaces.

It is clear that to be effective, developers of AR for learning will  need a rich skill set in order to create applications that offer the necessary learner control, challenging interactivity and experience coherence. As previously noted this seems like a perfect task for participatory design with young people being an integral part of designing their own current and future technology rich learning experiences.

Off my Trolley or Technology to refresh the parts other learning cannot reach?

Lady on a TrainI am normally sluggish in the morning at first and then after a while my body and mind warms up and by the time I get on the train I am fit for a flurry of activity. I notice that many people are busily occupied in the morning in contrast to our sleepy souls on the evening trip back home. I suspect that my little burst of energy is something of an irritation to some of my work colleagues as my emails come flooding in as a large ungainly lump. This morning I was mid sentence when something caught my eye on the drinks trolley – it was a set of adverts appearing on a small video screen at the back of the cart. Adverts designed to entice people to buy the coffee that will burst open their day, and can be enjoyed any way, the water fresh from the spring to give them a zing or, rather less suitably for this hour, the Californian Merlot that costs a bit more dough. This distraction set me thinking and I mused to the rhythm of my neighbour’s mp3 player. I wondered if I had a trolley to entice people to engage with a particular brand of technology to support their learning what would my little adverts say and depict? I can’t promise to offer a definitive decision in a single blog post and reserve the right to come back this distraction again.

So, what would I want my trolley to advertise?… First, I think I would go for something where technology ‘refreshes the parts other forms of learning cannot reach’. There has been a proliferation of powerful and sophisticated digital technologies that are embedded in the environment; and built into small personal devices, televisions and personal computers. These technologies enable the augmentation of our environment through accessing physically tagged data, which can be retrieved and viewed from multiple perspectives. This puts a whole new meaning to the idea of ‘letting your fingers do the walking

The digital augmentation of reality (AR) can enable people to see the world around them differently, to share their own perceptions and to view the perceptions of others through stored information. AR has been shown to have the potential to support learning, engage learners and has been predicted to gain widespread usage within the next 2-5 years (2011 Horizon Report). Augmentation is not restricted to the visual layering of representations on a physical reality, it also manifests itself as audio augmentation. watch movie

This video doesn’t exist

Neither is it restricted to the physical reality of a person’s context: popular locations based applications, such as foursquare, situate and integrate location and social media.

There have been few evaluations of the impact of AR technologies on learning, and yet the speed of its development for mobile phones has resulted in its migration from the research lab to teenager’s pockets – people are ‘just doing it’. As researchers, we don’t have a clear understanding of the impact of AR upon learning, attitude or behaviour change. We can only look and learn as this technology and our relationship to it evolves. It is a fascinating space where the boundaries between producers and consumers blur and the essence of participatory design is wonderfully and ‘curiously strong’. This might just be everyone’s very own personal ‘greatest show on earth’. greates show on earth

Debugging ICT in schools, and something for the old folk too

As New Year fitness resolutions come and go and birthdays add another year, one can’t help but contemplate what to do when one retires, these thoughts are fuelled by media and political attention to retirement age and the plight of the elderly within the NHS. For many years now I have told my children that I intend to study horse and dog racing when I get old. I believe that working out the odds will help to maintain my cognitive faculties, that following the races live, on the TV or radio will provide some excitement and that discussing the latest form of horses, riders and pundits with other fans will help to keep my social skills on song. Of course, this assumes no medical disadvantages to my capacities, but all being well this is an attractive plan.

More recently however, I have felt that this plan lacks any contribution back to society on my part, other than trying to ensure that I keep myself in good shape and reduce the chances of being a burden to my children. I have now added to my retirement plan rekindling my interest and skills in computer programming. There was a time when I was frequently to be found with a flask of coffee at 3am sat at my computer coding away. I could lose all sense of time when engrossed in trying to design a solution or debug a problem and could end up taking my children to school without having been to bed at all. I don’t want to return to these days of sleep deprivation and caffeine overload, but I do want to get back into the exhilaration of writing a recipe that makes something happen for me, for others and in ways that are not necessarily predictable: I want to hack for good when I get old. I may even be able to finesse my desire to follow the dogs and horses with my programming activity, and as I pointed out to my family, if I end up inadvertently doing something illegal, I could perhaps end up in the cheapest old people’s home a family could find, with regular meal times and exercise, plenty of time to think and work and regular visits from ones loved ones.

What is it that makes me want to go back to programming?

Perhaps it is a hankering for those halcyon days when I was younger and had the time to play, or when my studies and work required that I did; these were the days before I had to manage projects and have other people do the coding for me. It was when I had time within my working week to keep up to date with developments in a way that simply isn’t practical now. Or perhaps it is a realization that my dislike of ‘app culture’ is that it makes things too easy for people to do things without understanding how that thing is being done, and I like to understand how things are being done.

Is programming for everyone and should we all be learning to code?

I liked coding when I had the time to enjoy it and do it well and that is what drives me to go back to it, but I know many people who studied at the same time as me who hated coding and could not wait to stop having to do it. The benefit of understanding computer science, including coding is that it gives you the power to build things, like apps, rather than merely use them; to make things happen, rather than have them happen for you without understanding how or why; and to be part of a vibrant global community of people who like to code and work together to change the way that we interact with our technology. For a great example of young people developing and building innovative technical applications see the winning entry from Blatchington Mill School in Hove, to the Pearson Innov8 competition.

BLATCHINGTON Mill School version.

However, it isn’t for everyone and does not necessarily need to be. We certainly need a more technologically literate population, as noted by the Foresight Wider Implications of Science and Technology Report and the recent Royal Society report into the teaching of computing in schools. There is insufficient technological literacy to enable us to recognize and exploit the significant technological advances being made, but is everyone learning to code the answer?

The importance of being able to program was also amongst the virtues extolled the Secretary of State for Education in his recent opening address at the Bett 2012 exhibition and we should certainly give children the opportunity to learn to write code, to build applications and to get involved.

Gove at Bett2012

We all recognize that this means that we need to make sure that we have a teaching workforce who are equipped to teach such skills and that it needs a place within the curriculum and the school day. However, this is not a once and for all task, as is exemplified by the outdated and now obsolete ICT curriculum. The field of computing and programming changes at great speed and those who are part of it can be part of these changes. This dynamism and evolutionary speed means that the normal educational frameworks need adjusting to accommodate teaching a fast-moving, flexible and massively authored curriculum. It also has to be said that teaching, both the fundamentals of computer science, including programming is difficult: extremely difficult. Of all the teaching experiences I have had, the teaching of programming to undergraduates was the hardest subject area I have ever had to tackle. I wonder therefore how we really will maintain and support an expert computing teaching community.

There is of course a great role for technology itself to support the training and CPD of teachers and indeed to support the teaching of programming. For example, technology can provide a communication environment in which facilitators guide and link discussions so that practitioners share ideas, questions and probe more experienced, knowledgeable colleagues beyond their home workplace. But to build these sorts of networked practitioner forums through which teachers may form learning communities, they need to be provided with:

  • funding for practitioner time buy-out and small operational costs;
  • support for the roles of leading and co-ordinating facilitators, and
  • encouragement for self-organising communities, such as TeachMeet.

There also needs to be an acceptance that the benefits may not be immediate – practitioners and managers find it difficult to integrate technologies into their context. Their attitude and confidence with technology impacts on uptake and innovation requires. In the same way that Mr Gove accepts that his reforms may lead to a lowering in the number of top grades at GCSE and A Level, school leaders need to accept the possibility of some initial ‘failure’, and systematic mechanisms for dissemination by innovative teachers.

Technical skills alone are not enough

There is much more of importance that needs to be understood if people are to be able to build and use technology effectively and exploit its benefits for good. Students need to understand how people interact with and use their technologies to best effect. This is an interdisciplinary enterprise that includes social sciences as well as computer science. In order to build engaging applications of technology that are suitable for their purpose, students need to learn about the motivational and subjective experience of developing and using technology as well as the objective. Without this attention to Human Computer Interaction there is a risk that students will be unable to apply their new found technical prowess in ways that are effective for society and that will bring back the UK’s computing cutting edge.